Bleeding-Heart Liberals and Hard-Hearted Conservatives: Subtle Political Dehumanization Through Differential Attributions of Human Nature and Human Uniqueness Traits

Jarret T. Crawford, Sean A. Modri, Matt Motyl

Abstract


This research demonstrated that human nature (HN) and human uniqueness (HU) traits capture the content of Americans’ stereotypes about liberals and conservatives, respectively. Consistent with expectations derived from dehumanization theory, people more strongly associated HN traits with liberals than with conservatives, and more strongly associated HU traits with conservatives than with liberals. A trait × target ideology × perceiver ideology × trait valence interaction suggested that both liberals and conservatives more strongly associated their ingroup with stereotype-consistent positive traits, and their outgroup with stereotype-consistent negative traits. Mediation analyses revealed that outgroup antipathy, but not ingroup liking, explained the relationship between ideology and political outgroup dehumanization. Finally, humanness traits captured subtle differences in political stereotype content not captured with the warmth and competence dimensions derived from the stereotype content model. Together, these results indicate that differential attributions of HN and HU traits capture political stereotype content and function to subtly dehumanize one’s political opponents.


Keywords


stereotypes; dehumanization; ideology; intergroup relations; stereotype content; liberals; conservatives

Full Text: PDF HTML
Downloads: 14970

https://doi.org/10.5964/jspp.v1i1.184

Array ( [0] => Array ( [FORWARD_LINK] => ) [1] => Array ( [JOURNAL_CITE] => [ISSN] => 1552-7433 [JOURNAL_TITLE] => Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin [JOURNAL_ABBREVIATION] => Pers Soc Psychol Bull [ARTICLE_TITLE] => How Ambient Cues Facilitate Political Segregation [CONTRIBUTORS] => [CONTRIBUTOR] => [GIVEN_NAME] => Array ( [0] => Matt Motyl [1] => J. P. Prims [2] => Ravi Iyer ) [FIRST_PAGE] => 014616721987514 [YEAR] => 2019 [PUBLICATION_TYPE] => full_text [DOI] => 10.1177/0146167219875141 [FORWARD_LINK] => [BODY] => ) [2] => Array ( [JOURNAL_CITE] => [ISSN] => 1461-7188 [JOURNAL_TITLE] => Group Processes & Intergroup Relations [JOURNAL_ABBREVIATION] => Group Processes & Intergroup Relations [ARTICLE_TITLE] => From political opponents to enemies? The role of perceived moral distance in the animalistic dehumanization of the political outgroup [CONTRIBUTORS] => [CONTRIBUTOR] => [GIVEN_NAME] => Array ( [3] => Maria Giuseppina Pacilli [4] => Michele Roccato [5] => Stefano Pagliaro [6] => Silvia Russo ) [VOLUME] => 19 [ISSUE] => 3 [FIRST_PAGE] => 360 [YEAR] => 2016 [PUBLICATION_TYPE] => full_text [DOI] => 10.1177/1368430215590490 [FORWARD_LINK] => [BODY] => ) [3] => Array ( [BOOK_CITE] => [ISBN] => 978-3-319-78997-2 [VOLUME_TITLE] => Cultural Competence in Applied Psychology [CONTRIBUTORS] => [CONTRIBUTOR] => [GIVEN_NAME] => Array ( [7] => Sean T. Stevens [8] => Lee Jussim [9] => Lillian A. Stevens [10] => Stephanie M. Anglin ) [FIRST_PAGE] => 651 [YEAR] => 2018 [PUBLICATION_TYPE] => full_text [COMPONENT_NUMBER] => Chapter 26 [DOI] => 10.1007/978-3-319-78997-2_26 [FORWARD_LINK] => [BODY] => ) [4] => Array ( [JOURNAL_CITE] => [ISSN] => 2195-3325 [JOURNAL_TITLE] => Journal of Social and Political Psychology [JOURNAL_ABBREVIATION] => J. Soc. Polit. Psych. [ARTICLE_TITLE] => Moral polarization and out-party hostility in the US political context [CONTRIBUTORS] => [CONTRIBUTOR] => [GIVEN_NAME] => Array ( [11] => Ben M. Tappin [12] => Ryan T. McKay ) [VOLUME] => 7 [ISSUE] => 1 [FIRST_PAGE] => 213 [YEAR] => 2019 [PUBLICATION_TYPE] => full_text [DOI] => 10.5964/jspp.v7i1.1090 [FORWARD_LINK] => [BODY] => ) [5] => Array ( [JOURNAL_CITE] => [ISSN] => 1948-5514 [JOURNAL_TITLE] => Social Psychological and Personality Science [JOURNAL_ABBREVIATION] => Social Psychological and Personality Science [ARTICLE_TITLE] => Awareness of Intergroup Help Can Rehumanize the Out-Group [CONTRIBUTORS] => [CONTRIBUTOR] => [GIVEN_NAME] => Array ( [13] => Tamar Saguy [14] => Hanna Szekeres [15] => Rikki Nouri [16] => Amit Goldenberg [17] => Guy Doron [18] => John F. Dovidio [19] => Chaim Yunger [20] => Eran Halperin ) [VOLUME] => 6 [ISSUE] => 5 [FIRST_PAGE] => 551 [YEAR] => 2015 [PUBLICATION_TYPE] => full_text [DOI] => 10.1177/1948550615574748 [FORWARD_LINK] => [BODY] => ) [6] => Array ( [JOURNAL_CITE] => [ISSN] => 2156-5511 [JOURNAL_TITLE] => Politics, Groups, and Identities [JOURNAL_ABBREVIATION] => Politics, Groups, and Identities [ARTICLE_TITLE] => Monster metaphors in media coverage of the 2016 U.S. presidential contest [CONTRIBUTORS] => [CONTRIBUTOR] => [GIVEN_NAME] => Array ( [21] => Erin C. Cassese ) [VOLUME] => 6 [ISSUE] => 4 [FIRST_PAGE] => 825 [YEAR] => 2018 [PUBLICATION_TYPE] => full_text [DOI] => 10.1080/21565503.2018.1496120 [FORWARD_LINK] => [BODY] => ) [7] => Array ( [JOURNAL_CITE] => [ISSN] => 1468-2508 [JOURNAL_TITLE] => The Journal of Politics [JOURNAL_ABBREVIATION] => The Journal of Politics [ARTICLE_TITLE] => The Limits of Partisan Prejudice [CONTRIBUTORS] => [CONTRIBUTOR] => [GIVEN_NAME] => Array ( [22] => Yphtach Lelkes [23] => Sean J. Westwood ) [VOLUME] => 79 [ISSUE] => 2 [FIRST_PAGE] => 485 [YEAR] => 2017 [PUBLICATION_TYPE] => full_text [DOI] => 10.1086/688223 [FORWARD_LINK] => [BODY] => ) [8] => Array ( [JOURNAL_CITE] => [ISSN] => 17512395 [JOURNAL_TITLE] => Social Issues and Policy Review [JOURNAL_ABBREVIATION] => Social Issues and Policy Review [ARTICLE_TITLE] => The Problem with Morality: Impeding Progress and Increasing Divides [CONTRIBUTORS] => [CONTRIBUTOR] => [GIVEN_NAME] => Array ( [24] => Chloe Kovacheff [25] => Stephanie Schwartz [26] => Yoel Inbar [27] => Matthew Feinberg ) [VOLUME] => 12 [ISSUE] => 1 [FIRST_PAGE] => 218 [YEAR] => 2018 [PUBLICATION_TYPE] => full_text [DOI] => 10.1111/sipr.12045 [FORWARD_LINK] => [BODY] => ) [9] => Array ( [JOURNAL_CITE] => [ISSN] => 1939-8999 [JOURNAL_TITLE] => Social Psychology Quarterly [JOURNAL_ABBREVIATION] => Soc Psychol Q [ARTICLE_TITLE] => Republicans Value Agency, Democrats Value Communion [CONTRIBUTORS] => [CONTRIBUTOR] => [GIVEN_NAME] => Array ( [28] => Kimmo Eriksson ) [VOLUME] => 81 [ISSUE] => 2 [FIRST_PAGE] => 173 [YEAR] => 2018 [PUBLICATION_TYPE] => full_text [DOI] => 10.1177/0190272518771060 [FORWARD_LINK] => [BODY] => ) [10] => Array ( [JOURNAL_CITE] => [ISSN] => 15297489 [JOURNAL_TITLE] => Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy [JOURNAL_ABBREVIATION] => Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy [ARTICLE_TITLE] => Sacralizing Liberals and Fair-Minded Conservatives: Ideological Symmetry in the Moral Motives in the Culture War [CONTRIBUTORS] => [CONTRIBUTOR] => [GIVEN_NAME] => Array ( [29] => Jeremy A. Frimer [30] => Caitlin E. Tell [31] => Matt Motyl ) [VOLUME] => 17 [ISSUE] => 1 [FIRST_PAGE] => 33 [YEAR] => 2017 [PUBLICATION_TYPE] => full_text [DOI] => 10.1111/asap.12127 [FORWARD_LINK] => [BODY] => ) [11] => Array ( [JOURNAL_CITE] => [ISSN] => 1469-1825 [JOURNAL_TITLE] => Behavioral and Brain Sciences [JOURNAL_ABBREVIATION] => Behav Brain Sci [ARTICLE_TITLE] => Political diversity will improve social psychological science [CONTRIBUTORS] => [CONTRIBUTOR] => [GIVEN_NAME] => Array ( [32] => José L. Duarte [33] => Jarret T. Crawford [34] => Charlotta Stern [35] => Jonathan Haidt [36] => Lee Jussim [37] => Philip E. Tetlock ) [VOLUME] => 38 [ITEM_NUMBER] => e130 [YEAR] => 2015 [PUBLICATION_TYPE] => full_text [DOI] => 10.1017/S0140525X14000430 [FORWARD_LINK] => [BODY] => ) [12] => Array ( [JOURNAL_CITE] => [ISSN] => 1948-5514 [JOURNAL_TITLE] => Social Psychological and Personality Science [JOURNAL_ABBREVIATION] => Social Psychological and Personality Science [ARTICLE_TITLE] => Ideological Fit Enhances Interpersonal Orientations [CONTRIBUTORS] => [CONTRIBUTOR] => [GIVEN_NAME] => Array ( [38] => William J. Chopik [39] => Matt Motyl ) [VOLUME] => 7 [ISSUE] => 8 [FIRST_PAGE] => 759 [YEAR] => 2016 [PUBLICATION_TYPE] => full_text [DOI] => 10.1177/1948550616658096 [FORWARD_LINK] => [BODY] => ) [13] => Array ( [JOURNAL_CITE] => [ISSN] => 00221031 [JOURNAL_TITLE] => Journal of Experimental Social Psychology [JOURNAL_ABBREVIATION] => Journal of Experimental Social Psychology [ARTICLE_TITLE] => Ideological symmetries and asymmetries in political intolerance and prejudice toward political activist groups [CONTRIBUTORS] => [CONTRIBUTOR] => [GIVEN_NAME] => Array ( [40] => Jarret T. Crawford ) [VOLUME] => 55 [FIRST_PAGE] => 284 [YEAR] => 2014 [PUBLICATION_TYPE] => full_text [DOI] => 10.1016/j.jesp.2014.08.002 [FORWARD_LINK] => [BODY] => ) [14] => Array ( [JOURNAL_CITE] => [ISSN] => 1573-6687 [JOURNAL_TITLE] => Political Behavior [JOURNAL_ABBREVIATION] => Polit Behav [ARTICLE_TITLE] => Party Animals? Extreme Partisan Polarization and Dehumanization [CONTRIBUTORS] => [CONTRIBUTOR] => [GIVEN_NAME] => Array ( [41] => James L. Martherus [42] => Andres G. Martinez [43] => Paul K. Piff [44] => Alexander G. Theodoridis ) [YEAR] => 2019 [PUBLICATION_TYPE] => full_text [DOI] => 10.1007/s11109-019-09559-4 [FORWARD_LINK] => [BODY] => ) [15] => Array ( [JOURNAL_CITE] => [ISSN] => 03782166 [JOURNAL_TITLE] => Journal of Pragmatics [JOURNAL_ABBREVIATION] => Journal of Pragmatics [ARTICLE_TITLE] => A tale of two swamps: Transformations of a metaphorical frame in online partisan media [CONTRIBUTORS] => [CONTRIBUTOR] => [GIVEN_NAME] => Array ( [45] => Christian Burgers [46] => Melanie Jong Tjien Fa [47] => Anneke de Graaf ) [VOLUME] => 141 [FIRST_PAGE] => 57 [YEAR] => 2019 [PUBLICATION_TYPE] => full_text [DOI] => 10.1016/j.pragma.2018.12.018 [FORWARD_LINK] => [BODY] => ) [16] => Array ( [JOURNAL_CITE] => [ISSN] => 00221031 [JOURNAL_TITLE] => Journal of Experimental Social Psychology [JOURNAL_ABBREVIATION] => Journal of Experimental Social Psychology [ARTICLE_TITLE] => Malleable liberals and fixed conservatives? Political orientation shapes perceived ability to change [CONTRIBUTORS] => [CONTRIBUTOR] => [GIVEN_NAME] => Array ( [48] => Bethany Lassetter [49] => Rebecca Neel ) [VOLUME] => 82 [FIRST_PAGE] => 141 [YEAR] => 2019 [PUBLICATION_TYPE] => full_text [DOI] => 10.1016/j.jesp.2019.01.002 [FORWARD_LINK] => [BODY] => ) [17] => Array ( [JOURNAL_CITE] => [ISSN] => 00221031 [JOURNAL_TITLE] => Journal of Experimental Social Psychology [JOURNAL_ABBREVIATION] => Journal of Experimental Social Psychology [ARTICLE_TITLE] => How ideological migration geographically segregates groups [CONTRIBUTORS] => [CONTRIBUTOR] => [GIVEN_NAME] => Array ( [50] => Matt Motyl [51] => Ravi Iyer [52] => Shigehiro Oishi [53] => Sophie Trawalter [54] => Brian A. Nosek ) [VOLUME] => 51 [FIRST_PAGE] => 1 [YEAR] => 2014 [PUBLICATION_TYPE] => full_text [DOI] => 10.1016/j.jesp.2013.10.010 [FORWARD_LINK] => [BODY] => ) [18] => Array ( [JOURNAL_CITE] => [ISSN] => 1461-7315 [JOURNAL_TITLE] => New Media & Society [JOURNAL_ABBREVIATION] => New Media & Society [ARTICLE_TITLE] => Like, recommend, or respect? Altering political behavior in news comment sections [CONTRIBUTORS] => [CONTRIBUTOR] => [GIVEN_NAME] => Array ( [55] => Natalie Jomini Stroud [56] => Ashley Muddiman [57] => Joshua M Scacco ) [VOLUME] => 19 [ISSUE] => 11 [FIRST_PAGE] => 1727 [YEAR] => 2017 [PUBLICATION_TYPE] => full_text [DOI] => 10.1177/1461444816642420 [FORWARD_LINK] => [BODY] => [QUERY_RESULT] => [CROSSREF_RESULT] => ) )

Citations:

  • Matt Motyl, J. P. Prims, Ravi Iyer (2019)
    How Ambient Cues Facilitate Political Segregation
    Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167219875141
  • Maria Giuseppina Pacilli, Michele Roccato, Stefano Pagliaro, Silvia Russo (2016)
    From political opponents to enemies? The role of perceived moral distance in the animalistic dehumanization of the political outgroup
    Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 19(3), p. 360(ff.)
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430215590490
  • Sean T. Stevens, Lee Jussim, Lillian A. Stevens, Stephanie M. Anglin (2018)
    Cultural Competence in Applied Psychology, Chapter 26, p. 651(ff.)
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-78997-2_26
  • Ben M. Tappin, Ryan T. McKay (2019)
    Moral polarization and out-party hostility in the US political context
    Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 7(1), p. 213(ff.)
    https://doi.org/10.5964/jspp.v7i1.1090
  • Tamar Saguy, Hanna Szekeres, Rikki Nouri, Amit Goldenberg, Guy Doron, John F. Dovidio, Chaim Yunger, Eran Halperin (2015)
    Awareness of Intergroup Help Can Rehumanize the Out-Group
    Social Psychological and Personality Science, 6(5), p. 551(ff.)
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550615574748
  • Erin C. Cassese (2018)
    Monster metaphors in media coverage of the 2016 U.S. presidential contest
    Politics, Groups, and Identities, 6(4), p. 825(ff.)
    https://doi.org/10.1080/21565503.2018.1496120
  • Yphtach Lelkes, Sean J. Westwood (2017)
    The Limits of Partisan Prejudice
    The Journal of Politics, 79(2), p. 485(ff.)
    https://doi.org/10.1086/688223
  • Chloe Kovacheff, Stephanie Schwartz, Yoel Inbar, Matthew Feinberg (2018)
    The Problem with Morality: Impeding Progress and Increasing Divides
    Social Issues and Policy Review, 12(1), p. 218(ff.)
    https://doi.org/10.1111/sipr.12045
  • Kimmo Eriksson (2018)
    Republicans Value Agency, Democrats Value Communion
    Social Psychology Quarterly, 81(2), p. 173(ff.)
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0190272518771060
  • Jeremy A. Frimer, Caitlin E. Tell, Matt Motyl (2017)
    Sacralizing Liberals and Fair-Minded Conservatives: Ideological Symmetry in the Moral Motives in the Culture War
    Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 17(1), p. 33(ff.)
    https://doi.org/10.1111/asap.12127
  • José L. Duarte, Jarret T. Crawford, Charlotta Stern, Jonathan Haidt, Lee Jussim, Philip E. Tetlock (2015)
    Political diversity will improve social psychological science
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 38
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X14000430
  • William J. Chopik, Matt Motyl (2016)
    Ideological Fit Enhances Interpersonal Orientations
    Social Psychological and Personality Science, 7(8), p. 759(ff.)
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550616658096
  • Jarret T. Crawford (2014)
    Ideological symmetries and asymmetries in political intolerance and prejudice toward political activist groups
    Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 55, p. 284(ff.)
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2014.08.002
  • James L. Martherus, Andres G. Martinez, Paul K. Piff, Alexander G. Theodoridis (2019)
    Party Animals? Extreme Partisan Polarization and Dehumanization
    Political Behavior
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11109-019-09559-4
  • Christian Burgers, Melanie Jong Tjien Fa, Anneke de Graaf (2019)
    A tale of two swamps: Transformations of a metaphorical frame in online partisan media
    Journal of Pragmatics, 141, p. 57(ff.)
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2018.12.018
  • Bethany Lassetter, Rebecca Neel (2019)
    Malleable liberals and fixed conservatives? Political orientation shapes perceived ability to change
    Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 82, p. 141(ff.)
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2019.01.002
  • Matt Motyl, Ravi Iyer, Shigehiro Oishi, Sophie Trawalter, Brian A. Nosek (2014)
    How ideological migration geographically segregates groups
    Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 51, p. 1(ff.)
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2013.10.010
  • Natalie Jomini Stroud, Ashley Muddiman, Joshua M Scacco (2017)
    Like, recommend, or respect? Altering political behavior in news comment sections
    New Media & Society, 19(11), p. 1727(ff.)
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444816642420



Creative Commons License
ISSN: 2195-3325
PsychOpen Logo