Journal of Social and Political Psychology https://jspp.psychopen.eu/index.php/jspp <p>The&nbsp;<em>Journal of Social and Political Psychology</em>&nbsp;(JSPP) is a peer-reviewed open-access journal (without author fees). It publishes articles at the intersection of social and political psychology from different epistemological, methodological, theoretical, and cultural perspectives and from different regions across the globe that substantially advance the understanding of social problems, their reduction, and the promotion of social justice.</p> en-US <p>Authors who publish with Journal of Social and Political Psychology (JSPP) agree to the following terms:</p> <p><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="border-width: 0; float: left; margin-right: 2em; margin-bottom: 1em;" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License"></a></p> <p>Articles are published under the <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a> (CC BY 4.0).</p> <p>Under the CC BY license, authors retain ownership of the copyright for their article, but authors grant others permission to use the content of publications in JSPP in whole or in part provided that the original work is properly cited. Users (redistributors) of JSPP are required to cite the original source, including the author's names, JSPP as the initial source of publication, year of publication, volume number and DOI (if available).</p> <p>Authors may publish the manuscript in any other journal or medium but any such subsequent publication must include a notice that the manuscript was initially published by JSPP.</p> <p>Authors grant JSPP the right of first publication. Although authors remain the copyright owner, they grant the journal the irrevocable, nonexclusive rights to publish, reproduce, publicly distribute and display, and transmit their article or portions thereof in any manner.</p> editors@jspp.psychopen.eu (Christopher Cohrs, Johanna Ray Vollhardt) support@jspp.psychopen.eu (PsychOpen Support Team) Fri, 19 Feb 2021 00:14:15 -0800 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Editorial Report and Acknowledgement of Reviewers, 2020 https://jspp.psychopen.eu/index.php/jspp/article/view/6131 <p>No abstract available.</p> J. Christopher Cohrs, Johanna Ray Vollhardt Copyright (c) 2021 J. Christopher Cohrs; Johanna Ray Vollhardt https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jspp.psychopen.eu/index.php/jspp/article/view/6131 Fri, 19 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0800 Political Motivation: A Referent Evaluation Mathematical Model https://jspp.psychopen.eu/index.php/jspp/article/view/5539 <p>Mathematical modelling is popular in cognitive psychology because it enables clear and formal descriptions of the processes at play; yet, this approach has rarely been applied to political psychology. Here we adopt mathematical modelling to develop a theory of political motivation, which is a central concept in political psychology. The theory assumes that, in certain contexts, individuals entertain a set of representations of society, for example of the past, present and future (but also of fictive societies such as utopias). To each representation of society, an incentive value is attached which is not absolute, but (following theories of motivation in cognitive psychology) reference-dependent; namely, dependent on the context, corresponding to the whole set of representations of society. In turn, the model proposes that these subjective values determine two central aspects: a motivation for performing an appropriate political action and the ensuing political mood. We discuss the model with respect to theoretical and empirical research (and we examine Marx and Engel’s communist manifesto as an example of the latter). In short, we offer a new mathematical perspective on political motivation which emphasises the role of multiple representations of society in determining political motivation and the ensuing political mood.</p> Francesco Rigoli Copyright (c) 2021 Francesco Rigoli https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jspp.psychopen.eu/index.php/jspp/article/view/5539 Fri, 19 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0800 Beyond General Political Attitudes: Conspiracy Mentality as a Global Belief System Predicts Endorsement of International and Local Conspiracy Theories https://jspp.psychopen.eu/index.php/jspp/article/view/5609 <p>Conspiracy mentality is a general tendency to attribute significant events to the actions of malevolent actors, without referencing to a specific event. In two independent representative surveys of adult Serbian citizens (N1 = 1194; N2 = 1258) we validated Serbian version of the conspiracy mentality questionnaire (CMQ), a reasonably content-free tool designed to capture global conspiratorial beliefs. We successfully validated the adapted CMQ and replicated findings on two national representative samples. In both studies the results demonstrated: good psychometric properties of the CMQ and its predictive capacity for endorsing the international Conspiracy Theories (CTs) (Study 1) and the locally specific CTs (Study 2) over and above the measures of perceptions of political climate (trust in institutions, corruption perception, feeling of insecurity – Study 1), and generalized political attitudes (right-wing authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, political cynicism – Study 2). The study presents a unique adaptation and implementation of the CMQ in the non-English speaking country with very active and widespread conspiracy beliefs and a long history of conflicts.</p> Jasna Milošević Đorđević, Iris Žeželj, Živojin Đurić Copyright (c) 2021 Jasna Milošević Đorđević, Iris Žeželj, Živojin Đurić https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jspp.psychopen.eu/index.php/jspp/article/view/5609 Fri, 26 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0800 Ideological and Psychological Predictors of COVID-19-Related Collective Action, Opinions, and Health Compliance Across Three Nations https://jspp.psychopen.eu/index.php/jspp/article/view/5585 <p>Until vaccines or treatments are widely available and used, behavioral change (e.g. social distancing) on an unparalleled collective scale is the chief way to curb the spread of COVID-19. Relying on ideology and collective action models as conceptual frameworks, in the present study the role of ideological and psychological factors in COVID-19-related opinions, health compliance behaviors, and collective action were examined in three countries. Results, examining country as a moderator, showed some politically conservative orientations, especially social dominance orientation, relate to less collective action, less support of measures to manage COVID-19, and lower compliance. Variables, including empathy for those affected by COVID-19 and group efficacy also predicted COVID-19-related attitudes and behavior. Belief in science and perceived risk also emerged as key factors to impact compliance-related attitudes and behaviors. Implications for motivating collective compliance are discussed.</p> Becky L. Choma, Gordon Hodson, David Sumantry, Yaniv Hanoch, Michaela Gummerum Copyright (c) 2021 Becky L. Choma, Gordon Hodson, David Sumantry, Yaniv Hanoch, Michaela Gummerum https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jspp.psychopen.eu/index.php/jspp/article/view/5585 Fri, 19 Feb 2021 03:20:46 -0800 Social Representations and Ideology: Theories of Common Sense About COVID-19 Among Middle-Class Brazilians and Their Ideological Implications https://jspp.psychopen.eu/index.php/jspp/article/view/6069 <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the lives of billions of people worldwide. Individuals and groups were compelled to construct theories of common sense about the disease to communicate and guide practices. The theory of social representations provides powerful concepts to analyse the psychosocial construction of COVID-19. This study aimed to understand the social representations of COVID-19 constructed by middle-class Brazilian adults and their ideological implications, providing a social-psychological analysis of these phenomena while the pandemic is still ongoing. We adopted a qualitative approach based on semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted online in April-May 2020. Participants were 13 middle-class Brazilians living in urban areas. We analysed the interviews with thematic analysis and a phenomenological approach. The social representations were organised around three themes: 1) a virus originated in human actions and with anthropocentric meanings (e.g., a punishment for the human-led destruction of the environment); 2) a dramatic disease that attacks the lungs and kills people perceived to have “low immunity”; and 3) a disturbing pandemic that was also conceived as a correction event with positive consequences. The social representations included beliefs about the individualistic determination of immunity, the attribution of divine causes to the pandemic, and the need for the moral reformation of humankind. The discussion highlights the ideological implications of these theories of common sense. Socially underprivileged groups are at greater COVID-19-related risk, which the investigated social representations may contribute to conceal and naturalise.</p> Luiz Gustavo Silva Souza, Emma O’Dwyer, Sabrine Mantuan dos Santos Coutinho, Sharmistha Chaudhuri, Laila Lilargem Rocha, Luciane Pessanha de Souza Copyright (c) 2021 Luiz Gustavo Silva Souza, Emma O’Dwyer, Sabrine Mantuan dos Santos Coutinho, Sharmistha Chaudhuri, Laila Lilargem Rocha, Luciane Pessanha de Souza https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jspp.psychopen.eu/index.php/jspp/article/view/6069 Fri, 19 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0800 All Immigrants Are Not Alike: Intersectionality Matters in Views of Immigrant Groups https://jspp.psychopen.eu/index.php/jspp/article/view/5575 <p>In two studies, we investigated how intersecting social categories shape views of immigrants in the United States. In Study 1, we analyzed 310 attributes generated by 92 participants for the category of immigrant and 30 additional immigrant groups with intersecting social categories (e.g. “undocumented immigrant”) reflecting various levels of social status. Using the Meaning Extraction Method (MEM) and factor analysis to examine shared meanings, we identified five factors; further comparative analyses of immigrant groups focused on the first two factors (Vulnerable vs. Hardworking, Drain vs. Asset). The importance of legal status for judgments on these two factors was evident in comparisons of the generic immigrant with four specific legal intersections. An examination of all 31 groups of immigrants showed that higher status groups were perceived as Hardworking (less Vulnerable) and high national Assets (low Drain), while lower status groups varied in Vulnerability perceptions but were generally thought to be Drains on the nation rather than Assets. In Study 2, 270 participants evaluated intersectional immigrant social categories that differed in combinations of higher status (privileged) and lower status (marginalized) social group memberships, using scales based on the terms identified by the factors in Study 1. Participants rated immigrant groups with two privileged statuses as less vulnerable and more likely to be an asset to the nation than immigrant groups with two marginalized or mixed statuses. The utility of a bottom-up intersectional approach to assess stereotype content of immigrant groups is discussed.</p> Özge Savaş, Ronni M. Greenwood, Benjamin T. Blankenship, Abigail J. Stewart, Kay Deaux Copyright (c) 2021 Özge Savaş, Ronni M. Greenwood, Benjamin T. Blankenship, Abigail J. Stewart, Kay Deaux https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jspp.psychopen.eu/index.php/jspp/article/view/5575 Fri, 19 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0800 Accounting for a Riot: Religious Identity, Denying One's Prejudice, and the Tool of Blasphemy https://jspp.psychopen.eu/index.php/jspp/article/view/5565 <p>This paper presents an analysis of interviews of participants in a political manifestation in Indonesia about the reasons for the rally and the resulting riot. The rally was held in the middle of the Jakarta gubernatorial election, against a non-Muslim incumbent who was accused of having insulted the Quran. We argue that there is a deep relationship between social identities and religion, which has implications for societal togetherness and political freedom. Using a snowball technique, we interviewed 16 Muslims who had participated in this rally. The findings suggest that 1) even though the rally was held in the middle of an election, the demonstrators denied that the rally was politically motivated; 2) Those demonstrators who thought that intruders had infiltrated the rally, maintained that the intruders are to be held responsible for any violence, but not the ‘actual’ participants. 3) Interviewees claimed that their actions were not motivated by anti-Chinese prejudice, although traces of racist thinking can be found in their statements. The findings are discussed before the background of social representations, social identity, theories of collective action, and the black sheep effect.</p> Idhamsyah Eka Putra, Wolfgang Wagner, Peter Holtz, Any Rufaedah Copyright (c) 2021 Idhamsyah Eka Putra, Wolfgang Wagner, Peter Holtz, Any Rufaedah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jspp.psychopen.eu/index.php/jspp/article/view/5565 Fri, 19 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0800 Sociopolitical Intellectual Humility as a Predictor of Political Attitudes and Behavioral Intentions https://jspp.psychopen.eu/index.php/jspp/article/view/5553 <p>Recent research has highlighted the relevance of intellectual humility to politics. Among a U.S. sample (N = 852), we examined self-reported sociopolitical intellectual humility (SIH), a nonthreatening awareness of the fallibility of one’s views about topics central to society and politics. SIH was associated with being less likely to dislike/avoid political discussion, and with more political tolerance, less social dominance orientation, and more values and behavioral intentions focused on social equality, even when controlling political orientation and other relevant factors. SIH was also associated with more positive and less negative views of an individual expressing a political viewpoint. Further, SIH moderated the extent to which initial agreement with a political statement resulted in opinion change on the basis of hearing another person's arguments on the topic. These findings may point to ways SIH is relevant to people's attitudes toward others in society.</p> Elizabeth J. Krumrei-Mancuso, Brian Newman Copyright (c) 2021 Elizabeth J. Krumrei-Mancuso, Brian Newman https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jspp.psychopen.eu/index.php/jspp/article/view/5553 Fri, 19 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0800 Favouring a Disunited Kingdom? How Negative Perceptions of the EU-Referendum Relate to Individual Mobility and Collective Action Considerations https://jspp.psychopen.eu/index.php/jspp/article/view/5547 <p>One consequence of the EU-referendum’s pro-Brexit outcome was a renewed call for Scottish independence. Supporting this call can be construed as a form of collective action Scots may engage in. However, Scots may also consider individual mobility strategies including - in extreme cases - emigration. The current research investigated how identity-dynamics relate to these identity management strategies in post-referendum Scotland. We found a positive association between perceiving the EU-referendum as having violated expectations and considering individual mobility responses, mediated by identity subversion (i.e., the perception that the referendum results fundamentally changed the UK’s identity). Furthermore, we found that perceiving the EU-referendum as having violated expectations was related to higher collective action intentions, mediated by disidentification from UK citizens. Taken together, these findings underscore the pervasive role social identity processes play in shaping political decisions and individual behaviour.</p> Lara Ditrich, Edit Z. Gedeon, Kai Sassenberg Copyright (c) 2021 Lara Ditrich, Edit Z. Gedeon, Kai Sassenberg https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jspp.psychopen.eu/index.php/jspp/article/view/5547 Fri, 19 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0800 How (Many) Descriptive Claims About Political Polarization Exacerbate Polarization https://jspp.psychopen.eu/index.php/jspp/article/view/5543 <p>Recently, researchers and reporters have made a wide range of claims about the distribution, nature, and societal impact of political polarization. Here I offer reasons to believe that even when they are correct and prima facie merely descriptive, many of these claims have the highly negative side effect of increasing political polarization. This is because of the interplay of two factors that have so far been neglected in the work on political polarization, namely that (1) people tend to conform to descriptive norms (i.e., norms capturing [perceptions of] what others commonly do, think, or feel), and that (2) claims about political polarization often convey such norms. Many of these claims thus incline people to behave, cognize, and be affectively disposed in ways that contribute to social division. But there is a silver lining. People’s tendency to conform to descriptive norms also provides the basis for developing new, experimentally testable strategies for counteracting political polarization. I outline three.</p> Uwe Peters Copyright (c) 2021 Uwe Peters https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jspp.psychopen.eu/index.php/jspp/article/view/5543 Fri, 19 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0800