Disentangling Islamophobia: The Differential Effects of Symbolic, Realistic, and Terroristic Threat Perceptions as Mediators Between Social Dominance Orientation and Islamophobia

Fatih Uenal

Abstract


The aim of this paper is threefold. First, based on ongoing theoretical discussions on the dimensionality of Islamophobia, this study analyzes whether Islamophobia empirically constitutes a one-dimensional construct or rather a multidimensional construct consisting of anti-Muslim prejudice and anti-Islam sentiment. Second, the effects of symbolic, realistic, and terroristic (safety) threats on Islamophobia were analyzed concurrently. Finally, within the framework of the revised Integrated Threat Theory (Stephan & Renfro, 2002), and in order to test the mediating effect of threats, SDO is tested as an antecedent of perceived threat and Islamophobia. Respondents from Berlin (N = 355) participated in an online survey. The results indicate that Islamophobia empirically constitutes a two-dimensional phenomenon, consisting of anti-Muslim and anti-Islam sentiment. Whereas symbolic threat is related to both types of Islamophobia, realistic threat is associated only with anti-Muslim prejudice, and terroristic threat is associated only with anti-Islam sentiment. Finally, the results indicate that the relationship between SDO and both dimensions of Islamophobia is mediated by threats. Symbolic threats mediate the relationships between SDO and both dimensions of Islamophobia. Realistic threats mediate the relationship between SDO and anti-Muslim prejudice and terroristic threats between SDO and anti-Islam sentiment.

Keywords


Islamophobia; anti-Muslim prejudice; anti-Islam sentiment; symbolic threat; realistic threat; safety threat; terroristic threat; social dominance orientation

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https://doi.org/10.5964/jspp.v4i1.463

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Citations:

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    Counterintuitive Effects of Individualistic Diversity Discourse on “Generation Bataclan”
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    Right‐wing adherence and objective numeracy as predictors of minority group size perceptions and size threat reactions
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  • M. Joseph Sirgy, Min Young Kim, Mohsen Joshanloo, Michael Bosnjak (2019)
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  • Gert Pickel, Kazim Celik, Julia Schuler, Oliver Decker (2020)
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    Religiöse Identitäten und Vorurteil in Deutschland und der Schweiz – Konzeptionelle Überlegungen und empirische Befunde
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    United in Diversity, Divided in Adversity? Support for Right-Wing Eurosceptic Parties in the Face of Threat Differs Across Nations
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    https://doi.org/10.2478/jnmlp-2018-0009
  • Hajra Tahir, Jonas Rønningsdalen Kunst, David Lackland Sam (2019)
    Threat, Anti-Western Hostility and Violence among European Muslims: The Mediating Role of Acculturation
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    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2019.08.001
  • Becky L. Choma, Arvin Jagayat, Gordon Hodson, Rhiannon Turner (2018)
    Prejudice in the wake of terrorism: The role of temporal distance, ideology, and intergroup emotions
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    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.11.002
  • Val Colic-Peisker, Masha Mikola, Karien Dekker (2019)
    Religious visibility: perceptions and experiences of residents in two Muslim concentration suburbs in Melbourne, Australia
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    https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2018.1557729
  • Helen Landmann, Robert Gaschler, Anette Rohmann (2019)
    What is threatening about refugees? Identifying different types of threat and their association with emotional responses and attitudes towards refugee migration
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    https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2593



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